After Genocide

Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond
Phil Clark and Zachary D. Kaufman (editors)


Phil Clark is a Research Fellow in Courts and Public Policy at the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford, and co-convenor of Oxford Transitional Justice Research. He has a DPhil in Politics from Balliol College, University of Oxford, where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar. His doctoral research, based on extensive fieldwork, explored issues of post-genocide justice and reconciliation in Rwanda, focusing on the gacaca community courts. Following his doctoral work, he was the researcher and author of a forthcoming book project for the Open Society Justice Initiative, exploring issues of the complementarity of the International Criminal Court (ICC) and national and community-level institutions in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Uganda. The project was based on seven months’ fieldwork in the DRC and Uganda in 2006-2008. Clark was also technical advisor and co-author of a 2007 UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights project surveying popular perceptions of transitional justice and peace-building in northern Uganda. He has advised the Danish, Sudanese, Ugandan and UK governments, the ICC, the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Human Rights Watch and Crisis Group on conflict issues in Africa. Go to top

Zachary D. Kaufman's website is available at Go to top


Morten Bergsmo is Senior Researcher at the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo.  He was formerly (2002-05) Senior Legal Adviser and Chief of the Legal Advisory Section, Office of the Prosecutor, ICC, and previously (1994-2002), Legal Adviser, ICTY.  He was also Legal Adviser to the UN Commission of Experts for the Former Yugoslavia, which was established pursuant to Security Council resolution 780 (1992) 1993–1994, and represented the ICTY to the UN negotiation process to establish the ICC, 1996-2002. Go to top

Susanne Buckley-Zistel is the director of the research project "The Politics of Building Peace", about strategies of dealing with the past after violent conflicts, at the Free University Berlin. She previously worked as a research fellow at the Peace Research Institute Frankfurt; the Conflict, Security, and Development Group at King's College, London; as well as for a number of UK-based, conflict-related NGOs. Buckley-Zistel holds a PhD from the London School of Economics and has published widely on post-conflict transformation. She is the author of the book, Conflict Transformation and Social Change in Uganda: Remembering After Violence (Palgrave/Macmillan) and is currently finalising a book on post-conflict justice and reconciliation in Rwanda. Go to top

Alison J. Cole is an Associate Legal Officer for the joint Appeals Chamber of the ICTR and the ICTY. She previously worked as an independent consultant at the Office of the Prosecutor of the ICTR, working with rape witnesses and the expert witness on the sexual violence committed as a mode of the genocide. She has conducted several human rights investigations, including on death row in Jamaica, in refugee camps in Northern Uganda, in the tribal regions of Gujarat, and in the Palestinian Territory. Go to top

Solomon Nsabiyera Gasana is a Congolese-born consultant on conflict and post-conflict issues in the Great Lakes region and founder of Abundant Life Institute, a peace-building, justice, and development organisation.  As a Fulbright scholar, he completed a Master’s degree at Eastern Mennonite University, Virginia.  He was previously Director of the Healing, Peace, and Reconciliation Program, World Vision Rwanda. Go to top

Helen Hintjens teaches on two new Masters programmes at the Institute of Social Studies in The Hague: Human Rights, Development and Social Justice and Violent Conflict, Reconstruction and Human Security. She previously worked for many years at the Centre for Development Studies at Swansea University in Wales.  Her main publications on Rwanda include: “Explaining the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda,” Journal of Modern African Studies, 37 (2) (1999); “When identity becomes a knife: Reflecting on the genocide in Rwanda,” Ethnicities, 1 (1) (2001).  With David Kiwuwa, she has a chapter entitled, “Not Ethnicity but Race: Unity and Conflict in Rwanda since the Genocide,” in S. Saha (ed.) Perspectives on Contemporary Ethic Conflict (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006).
Hintjens publishes on asylum and refugee issues, on global social movements, and on the politics of Caribbean non-sovereign territories. Go to top

Hassan Bubacar Jallow is Prosecutor of the ICTR.  He studied law at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (1973), the Nigerian Law School (1976), and the University College, London (1978).  He then worked as State Attorney in the Attorney-General’s Chambers in the Gambia from 1976 until 1982, when he was appointed Solicitor General. Justice Jallow served as Gambia’s Attorney-General and Minister of Justice from 1984 to 1994, and subsequently as a Judge of the Gambia’s Supreme Court from 1998 to 2002.  In 1998, he was appointed by the UN Secretary-General to serve as an international legal expert and carry out a judicial evaluation of the ICTR and the ICTY.  He also has served as a legal expert for the Organization of African Unity and worked on the drafting and conclusion of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, which was adopted in 1981.  He has also served the Commonwealth in various respects, including chairing the Governmental Working Group of Experts in Human Rights. Until his commencement as Prosecutor to the ICTR, Justice Jallow was a Judge of the Appeals Chamber of the Special Court for Sierra Leone on the appointment of the UN Secretary-General in 2002, as well as a member of the Commonwealth Secretariat Arbitral Tribunal. Justice Jallow was awarded the honor of Commander of the National Order of the Republic of Gambia. Go to top

Paul Kagame is President of the Republic of Rwanda.  From 1990 to 1994, he was military commander of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), the insurgent armed force that halted the genocide in Rwanda in 1994. He was appointed Vice-President and Minister for Defence in the Government of National Unity in July 1994, and in 1998 was elected Chairman of the RPF, a partner in the Government of National Unity.  On 17 April 2000, Paul Kagame was elected President of the Republic of Rwanda by the Transitional National Assembly; after winning the 2003 elections he was sworn in as President, ending the transition period. He was elected First Vice President of the African Union during the Second Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union in July 2003. He is currently Chairman of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. Go to top

Jean Baptiste Kayigamba was born and educated in Rwanda, graduating from the National University of Rwanda in 1992 with an MA in English and Linguistics. He also has an MA in Publishing from Oxford Brookes University. When the genocide started in Rwanda, he was working for Inter Press Service (IPS) and the Third World News Agency, and after the genocide worked in the Office of the President of Rwanda, initially as Press Attaché, then as Director of Media and Public Relations. He later left public administration to work as a correspondent for numerous international news organisations, most notably Reuters. Since 2001, Kayigamba has lived in the UK with his wife and three children. Go to top

René Lemarchand is Emeritus Professor of Political Science at the University of Florida. He has written extensively on the Great Lakes region of Africa and was the recipient of the Herskovits Award in 1971 for Rwanda and Burundi (1970). He is also the author of a companion volume, Burundi: Ethnic Violence and Genocide (1994), and more recently of The Dynamics of Violence in Central Africa (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008). He served as Regional Adviser on governance and democracy with the United States Agency for International Development in Abidjan from 1992 to 1996 and in Accra from 1996 to 1998, and has been a visiting lecturer at the Universities of Berkeley, Bordeaux, Copenhagen, Helsinki, and Antwerp. Go to top

Linda Melvern is the author of six works of non-fiction, including a fifty year history of the United Nations. Her two books about the Rwandan genocide are: A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide, co-published in September 2000 by Zed Books, London, and St. Martin’s Palgrave, New York; and Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide, published in 2004 by Verso. A fully updated paperback edition of Conspiracy to Murder was published in April 2006. Go to top

Luis Moreno Ocampo is the first Prosecutor of the ICC, unanimously elected in April 2003. Between 1984 and 1992, as a prosecutor in Argentina, Moreno Ocampo was involved in precedent-setting trials of top military commanders for mass killings and other large-scale human rights abuses. In 1992, he resigned as Chief Prosecutor of the Federal Criminal Court of Buenos Aires and established a private law firm, Moreno Ocampo & Wortman Jofre, which specialises in corruption control programs for large firms and organizations, criminal, and human rights law. Until his election as Prosecutor of the ICC, Moreno Ocampo worked as a lawyer and as Private Inspector General for large companies. He also took on a number of pro bono activities, including as legal representative for the victims in the extradition of former Nazi officer Erich Priebke to Italy, the trial of the chief of the Chilean secret police for the murder of General Carlos Prats, and several cases concerning political bribery, journalists’ protection, and freedom of expression.  Moreno Ocampo has also worked with various local, regional and international NGOs. He was the president of Transparency International for Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as having served on its global Advisory Board. The founder and president of Poder Ciudadano, Moreno Ocampo has served as a member of the Advisory Board of the “Project on Justice in Times of Transition” and “New Tactics on Human Rights.” Moreno Ocampo has also been a visiting professor at both Stanford University and Harvard University. Go to top

Tom Ndahiro is a Rwandan journalist and human rights activist. Until May 1999, he was the Editor-in-Chief of a weekly Rwandan paper, after which he was elected by the parliament to be one of the first seven members of the Rwandan Commission for Human Rights. In this institution, he served as a Commissioner in charge of Civil and Political Rights. Ndahiro extensively lectures and publishes nationally and internationally on the subject of genocide. Since he left the Commission in March 2006, he has been researching and writing a book on “genocide ideology”. Go to top

Martin Ngoga is Prosecutor-General of the Republic of Rwanda and formerly the Rwandan government’s special envoy to the ICTR in Arusha. Go to top

Kalypso Nicolaïdis is a University Lecturer in International Relations and a Fellow of St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford. She is also the director of the European Studies Centre and chair of Southeastern European Studies. In 2005-06 Nicolaïdis held the professorial chair on Visions of Europe at the College of Europe in Bruges, and previously she was Vincent Wright Chair at Sciences-Po, Paris, Associate Professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government, and taught at the Ecole Nationale d’Administration in Paris. Nicolaïdis holds a Ph.D. in Political Economy and Government from Harvard University, a Master’s degree in Public Administration from the Kennedy School of Government, a Master’s degree in International Economics and a Diplome from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques in Paris. She has published widely on the EU, as well as preventive diplomacy, dispute resolution, and other issues in international affairs, in numerous journals including Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, The Journal of Common Market Studies, Journal of European Public Policy, and International Organization. Her latest publications include: Whose Europe? National Models and the Constitution of the European Union (Oxford University Press, 2003) and The Federal Vision: Legitimacy and Levels of Governance in the US and the EU (Oxford University Press, 2001). Go to top

William A. Schabas is the Director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights at the National University of Ireland, Galway, where he also holds the professorship in human rights law.  From 2000 to 2004, Schabas served as one of three international commissioners in the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission.  He is the author of numerous monographs and articles, including Genocide in International Law, Introduction to the International Criminal Court, The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law, and The UN International Criminal Tribunals.  He is an Officer of the Order of Canada. Go to top

John Steward gained his Ph.D. from Adelaide University in 1972, after completing his undergraduate degree in agriculture, and then completed an Honours degree in Divinity from the Melbourne College of Divinity.  In Indonesia from 1974 to 1983 he was a lecturer in theology, agriculture, and community development before joining World Vision in Jakarta to initiate a leadership training program for village development motivators.  Steward went on to facilitate adult learning processes for indigenous community workers from over 50 countries.  In 1997-98 he was involved in post-genocide reconstruction with World Vision in Rwanda. He returns to Rwanda every six months to discuss progress with Rwandese peace workers. Go to top

Maria Warren served as Chief of Information and Evidence in the Office of the Prosecutor of the ICTR from 2000 to 2006.  She was previously Director of Knowledge Management in one of Australia's largest corporate law firms.  In both positions, Warren was able to integrate sound principles of legal practice and information management to mobilize key information, technical, human and legal resources to develop and implement innovative and effective trial strategies. She is now combining her private and public experience to assist in the institution-building efforts at the ICC as Chef de Cabinet in the Office of the Prosecutor. Go to top

Philippa Webb is currently Special Assistant to the President of the International Court of Justice, President Rosalyn Higgins.  She was formerly Associate Legal Adviser to the Prosecutor of the ICC, before which she worked at the United Nations Secretariat in New York and an international law firm in Sydney and Tokyo.  Webb holds Arts and Law degrees from the University of New South Wales and a Master of Laws from Yale Law School.  She is a doctoral candidate at Yale Law School, writing on the development of international humanitarian law by international courts and tribunals. Go to top

Jennifer M. Welsh holds a B.A. in Political Science from the University of Saskatchewan (where she won the Governor General’s Medal) and Master’s and Doctorate degrees in International Relations from the University of Oxford (where she studied as a Rhodes Scholar). She is a former Jean Monnet Fellow of the European University Institute in Florence and was a Cadieux Research Fellow in the Policy Planning Staff of the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs. Welsh has taught international relations at the University of Toronto, McGill University, and the Central European University (Prague). She is currently University Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Oxford, where she is a Fellow of Somerville College.  Welsh is the author and co-author of five books and a series of articles on international relations. Her most recent publications include Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations (Oxford University Press, 2004) and At Home in the World: Canada’s Global Vision for the 21st Century (HarperCollins Canada, 2004). The latter was a Globe 100 Best Book of the Year (2004) and was also nominated for the Shaughnessy Cohen Prize for Political Writing. Her current research projects include the evolution of the notion of the “responsibility to protect” in international society, the ethics of post-conflict reconstruction, and changing directions in Canadian foreign aid policy. In 2008, Oxford University Press published a book she co-edited with Vaughan Lowe, Sir Adam Roberts, and Dominik Zaum entitled, The United Nations Security Council and War: The Evolution of Thought and Practice since 1945. Go to top

Paul D. Williams is Associate Professor in the Elliott School of International Affairs at the George Washington University, USA.  He is author of British Foreign Policy under New Labour 1997-2005 (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2005), co-author of Understanding Peacekeeping (Polity, 2004), editor of Security Studies: An Introduction (Routledge, 2008), and co-editor of Africa in International Politics (Routledge, 2004).  His main research interests are UK foreign policy and contemporary peace operations. Go to top

Dominik Zaum is Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Reading. He is the author of The Sovereignty Paradox: The Norms and Politics of International Statebuilding (Oxford University Press, 2007), and editor, together with Vaughan Lowe, Sir Adam Roberts, and Jennifer Welsh, of The United Nations Security Council and War (Oxford University Press, 2008). He has written in particular on post-conflict statebuilding and international administrations, and has previously worked for the Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and the Lessons Learned and Analysis Unit of the UNMIK/EU Pillar in Kosovo. Go to top